Reading Response 8

Collaboration or Plagiarism?

Does plagiarism exist anymore? Collaboration is at an all time high because of the growing use and abilities of technology. It’s easier than ever to pull ideas from multiple places making them one’s own ideas. After all at what point is an idea your own? We’ve been taught to give credit to the person(s) where we found an idea so as not to take credit that does not belong to us. If someone else has put in the time and effort to do the research they deserve recognition. Collaboration is making plagiarism more of a grey area than black and white like in the past.

Plagiarism seems easy to avoid. You find an idea in an article or book or on a website and decide to use it in your own writing so you reference the source where you found the idea. That seems simple enough and should not be hard to do. Hollis Phelps’s wrote an essay about a philosopher and cultural critic he admired who was accused of plagiarism. Phelps said “I would suggest that underneath a lot of the dissatisfaction among fans and critics are unrealistic expectations of what it means to be a scholar and to produce scholarly work” (2014). Because the accusation of plagiarism can be detrimental to someone’s career he seems to desire to defend the possible reasons for why it may have happened in this case.

Do we cite everything we actually read and include in our own writings? We make sure we cite the scholarly sources but what about when we Google to understand something we are including in our writings? We research what we need to know from one or more secondary sources and put in our own words to make it ours. Is it ours or plagiarism or collaboration? In an interview with Clay Shirky he describes collaboration with a radio-controlled car. He describes how the shell for the 3-D car was printed but was too heavy. Other people suggested making some changes and eventually getting it to the point it worked. More than one person had an input making it a collaborative effort (2014). The car was put together with a piece from here and there so no one person got credit for it. The same with his description of Wikipedia, people can go in and add more information to it.

As important as it is to give credit where credit is due collaboration challenges that. It is just as important as ever to give credit to the appropriate person(s). If we are not the expert in the field then we do not have the right to take the credit because we are not the ones who discovered the information.

Phelps, Hollis. “Žižek, Plagiarism and the Lowering of Expectations.” Inside Higher Education. July 17 2014.Web. <https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2014/07/17/%C5%BEi%C5%BEek-plagiarism-and-lowering-expectations-essay>.

Shirky, C. (2014, March). The disruptive power of collaboration: An interview with Clay Shirky [Interview by Michael Chui]. Retrieved from http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/high_tech_telecoms_internet/the_disruptive_power_of_collaboration_an_interview_with_clay_shirky

Reading Response 7

What is privacy and does it exist anymore? Privacy is different to each person. This day in age there is very little privacy left to be had. Data mining gathers all of the information we put out there in many different forms. Living off the grid is practically unheard of anymore because it has become almost impossible. The collection and mining of data is a double edged sword to some people.

There are people who accept that data collection and mining happens and they go on with their lives with less concern of any potential for harm. Instead they see the benefits as outweighing the negatives. One example of a huge benefit in an article by Evan Selinger is terrorists.

Data mining isn’t new. It’s been going on for centuries but with the growth in technology exposing the usage of this data more people are fearful of it. Kate Murphy explains “…people are coming to understand how their online data might be used against them. You might not get a job, a loan or a date because of an indiscreet tweet of if your address on Google Street View shows your brother-in-law’s clunker in the driveway” (2014). This is a reality. What we do online or in the eye line of technology can be used for or against us in the future.

Since we have learned that what we do online can affect us you would think we would be more careful with our behavior but that isn’t always the case. Some people know people are watching and still don’t hold back while others are more careful and thoughtful in their behaviors. People have opened their lives up to the data mining world because ultimately in the end they enjoy what they get out of it.

The fear of what can or has happened with the use of technology is more real to some than it is to others. Selinger explains that paranoia is an unfair term that is used when referring to people like Nicholas Carr. He says” It’s particularly troubling because versions of the rhetoric are routinely applied to technology critics to unduly strip their skepticism of legitimacy” (2014). Selinger also explains that “Without technology critics, our conversations about technology would be too rosy to lead to the good decisions Bustillos presupposes we’re making all the time” (2014). The supporters and the ones who question technology all help it grow and improve.

Technology that we use today is still a new world that is being explored. In time through trial and error it will develop with the goal of becoming better than it is now. The concerns of people who fear technology will be taken into account along with those who promote it. People have grown to enjoy technology even if they are fearful because it has become a part of our lives.

References

Murphy, K. (2014). We want privacy, but can’t stop sharing. The New York Times.

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/05/sunday-review/we-want-privacy-but-cant-stop-sharing.html?_r=0

Selinger, E. (2014). Why it’s too easy to dismiss technology critics: Or, the fallacies leading to a reviewer

to call Nicholas Carr paranoid. Forbes.

http://www.forbes.com/sites/privacynotice/2014/09/19/why-its-too-easy-to-dismiss-technology-critics-or-the-fallacies-leading-a-reviewer-to-call-nicholas-carr-paranoid/

Literature Review

Technology in Education

The education field has many expert opinions of what are the most effective methods and tools for teaching. Our education department has been going through reform for more than two decades now. Throughout this time opinions regarding what is best have changed due to many different factors. Years of observation, trial and error, and new technologies are just a few examples of these factors. The different learning styles of student’s present a challenge to teachers in finding one way to successfully teach an entire classroom. By creating an active learning environment and incorporating the use of popular technology such as the iPad, the cognitive learning of students will increase.

The article “Implications of Shifting Technology in Education” addresses the potential of technology in education now and up to five years into the future. Technology allows for a different type of classroom. Janet and John Holland describe the possible outcome of allowing technology in education by “Using integrated curriculums, team teaching, media rich instructional technologies, forming partnerships, and fostering innovation, we can create knowledge and skills to prepare learners to work in future markets” (2014). The use of technology in education provides skills not only with technology but socially and with other cultures.

The student’s world of education has greatly expanded because of technology. Technology allows students to collaborate much easier with one another and receive feedback instantly. Teachers can become more of a support system for students as they utilize technology for their assignments. Students are able to do more hands on learning as they are researching the topics they are studying and work at a pace that is more suitable to their learning. While they are using technology to do their work they can also expand their knowledge and understanding of the topic more effectively.

Kevin Ruth describes the way schools are changing due to technology and digital textbooks in his article “Texts That Change Schools”. Digital textbooks are just recently becoming popular in some schools. Promoters of it are able to see the many uses of the digital textbooks. The ways they allow students to have a more in depth experience with what they are learning. Ruth points out that with every new technology there have been those who don’t see the positive impacts within that technology.

Ruth does indicate that just because digital textbooks are quickly becoming popular and hold more possibilities than with paper textbooks they aren’t going to discard paper books completely. He explains that it isn’t a choice between one or the other, it is both. Ruth also believes that digital textbooks can change the way schools educate students in a way that paper books can’t.

The Holland’s emphasize the importance of keeping up with the times by utilizing mobile technology in education. The approach to learning needs to shift to the students because “It is a self-directed or do-it-yourself (DIY) approach to learning” (2014). The way students are learning is changing due to the increase in information brought to them through technology. Ruth also reports ways technology is benefiting education. He explains that “In short, they see all learners (teachers too!) having a more intimate experience with the materials used in courses, including the ability to link and even alter those materials, should they so choose” (2013). Not only are students able to use technology to assist them in their assignments in ways they choose but teachers can also include additional links to information that can benefit the subject matter being taught. Both articles provide many possibilities about the ways technology can benefit not only the student but also the educators.

Another classroom change that can benefit students and educators is called flipped learning. The Flipped Learning Network is a professional learning community for educators using the flipped learning approach to educate students. It describes a new type of classroom. “Flipped Learning is a pedagogical approach in which direct instruction moves from the group learning space to the individual learning space, and the resulting group space is transformed into a dynamic, interactive learning environment where the educator guides students as they apply concepts and engage creatively in the subject matter” (2014 Four Pillars). Flipped learning is more than a flipped classroom. To engage flipped learning teachers must have a flexible environment, a learning culture, intentional content, and are professional educators.

Holland and Ruth provide information on the benefits of technology in the classroom and the Flipped Learning Network describes a new approach to the traditional classroom. Both ideas are intended to benefit the students. Now combine the use of technology with the flipped classroom which is what New York University introduces.

New York University released an article titled “Integrating Media and Technology with Flipped Model Pedagogy”. In this article it explains how technology is important to the flipped classroom. “There is an abundance of research literature supporting how active learning increases students’ retention, motivation, and persistence with material. Therefore it is important not to use the technology (i.e.: video conferencing) or media (i.e.: video) for just absorbing inert knowledge but for more active participation in meaningful tasks that use the knowledge and skills” (2014). The technology utilized for a flipped classroom is meant to connect with the learning objectives of the classroom while also allowing students to work at their own pace.

These articles discuss technology, digital textbooks, flipped learning and flipped learning with the use of technology but the reason is for student-centered learning. NYU explains “The flipped classroom is associated with both student-centered pedagogy and the use of technology and media to provide an effective and engaging learning environment” (2014). Technology does not depend on a flipped classroom and a flipped classroom does not depend on technology. However when combined “they can add value in many ways to the ‘blend’ of in-class and out-of class experiences” (2014). The growth in technology and the reforms in education are beginning to integrate.

The Holland’s and Ruth both describe the benefits of the use of technology in the classroom for students and teachers. The Flipped Learning Network describes a new approach to teaching and learning which is intended to be more effective than the traditional lecture style. NYU blends these three ideas giving a description of how they can all work together to promote student-centered pedagogy. Each seems to build on another at the same time not depending on each idea presented.

References

Holland J., & Holland, J. (2014). Implications of shifting technology in education. Techtrends: Linking

            Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 58(3), 16-25. doi: 10.1007/s11528-014-0748-3

Integrating media and technology with flipped model pedagogy. (2014). New York University.

http://www.nyu.edu/faculty/teaching-and-learning-resources/instructional-technology-support/instructional-design-assessment/flipped-classes/integrating-media-and-technology-with-flipped-model-pedagogy.html

Ruth, K.J. (2013) Texts that change schools. Independent School, 72(4), 50-55.

The four pillars of F-L-I-P. (2014). Flipped Learning Network (FLN).

www.flippedlearning.org/definition.

Annotated Bibliography

Bashram, J. D., Israel, M., Graden, J., Poth, R., & Winston, M. (2010). “A Comprehensive Approach to

RTI: Embedding Universal Design for Learning and Technology”. Learning Disability Quarterly,

33(4), 243-255.

The authors in this article discuss the level of the needs for diverse learning students. They address Response to Intervention also referred to as RtI. That is a tiered level of supports to all students which allows for increasingly more intensive and individualized instruction. It addresses students’ needs and plans according to those needs through instructional, environmental, and technology supports.

Technology is a major support in special education. The authors also introduce UDL (Universal Design for Learning). They discuss the need for the relationship between RtI and UDL to be developed together.

Gyeongae, S., Eunjoo, Y., Eun-Young, K., Eun-Jung, K., & Wonjung, N. (2013). Comparing Brain

Activation Between Students who use Digital Textbooks and Those who use Conventional Paper

Textbooks. New Educational Review, 32(2), 233-242.

In this article the authors tested 54 sixth graders on the effects of paper textbooks and digital textbooks. They did this by measuring different brain waves. Prior to the reports from the study they said that digital textbooks can provide a more personalized learning. The use of digital textbooks allows students to have immediate feedback regarding the task they’ve completed.

This study analyzed four different brain waves which were used to compare brain function characteristics between students who used digital textbooks and those who used traditional paper textbooks. At this time no other study had been done to compare these differences. The results of the study  showed that students were able to concentrate while they were engaged in cognitive thinking processes better with the use of digital textbooks.

Haihong, H., & Garimella, U. (2014). iPads for STEM Teachers: A Case Study on Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Proficiency, Intention to Adopt, and Integration in K-12 Instruction. Journal of Educational Technology Development & Exchange, 7(1), 49-66.

Mobile technology in education is rapidly growing and teachers need to be equipped to use the latest educational technology that benefits students. Currently that is the iPad. It is expected that schools will soon have more iPads than computers. iPads and other tablets have shown to be useful for students that have cognitive impairments. They have also shown to be beneficial in reading fluency and those who are struggling.

The positive impact of mobile technology is requiring educators to increase their skills in technology in order to best utilize these devices. Professional development in technology could help improve educators’ attitudes and enhance their strategies. This positive change will spill over to students’ attitudes and learning. Teachers who took part in the iPad training felt it would benefit their students.

McLean, K. (2013). “Literacy and Technology in the Early Years of Education: Looking to the Familiar

to Inform Educator Practice”. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 38(4), 30-41.

The author presents the idea that technology and literacy can benefit one another in education in the early years. She believes that as technology advances literacy learning will continue to change. Technology is just another tool just as a book has been for learning literacy.

Karen Mclean feels educators and the systems need to accept the benefits of technology in education. She says that literacy needs to work with technology at home and in education. Literacy can be used in technology through play which is even more enticing to students. The need for improved literacy can be assisted through the use of technology.

Rivero, V. (2013). “Digital Textbooks: Show Me the Future!”. Internet@Schools, 20(3), 12-16.

Victor Rivero explains the rapid growth of technology in education. Apple is leading the way with iBooks Textbooks for iPad. The iBooks Textbooks for iPad has taken educational textbooks to an entirely new level. Students are able to highlight text, quiz themselves, look up definitions, and much more. The famously known McGraw-Hill, Pearson, and Houghton Mifflin Harcourt are right there with Apple.

Digital textbooks more than doubled in just two years. Rivero believes paper textbooks are soon to be a thing of the past. Education is quickly working to transform to almost half digital by 2017. Schools are working to obtain some type of mobile technology to replace textbooks whether it’s a kindle or an iPad.

Ruth, K.J. (2013). “Texts That Change Schools”. Independent School, 72(4), 50-55.

Kevin Ruth describes the way schools are changing due to technology and digital textbooks. Digital textbooks are just recently becoming popular in schools. Promoters of it are able to see the many uses of the digital textbooks. The ways they allow students to have a more in depth experience with what they are learning. Ruth points out that with every new technology there have been those who don’t see the positive impacts within that technology.

Ruth does point out that just because digital textbooks are quickly becoming popular and hold more possibilities than with paper textbooks they aren’t going to do away with paper books completely. He explains that it isn’t a choice between one or the other, it is both. Ruth also believes that digital textbooks can change schools and how school is done not just the form of the book that is used.

Sapers, J. (2012). “The Evolution of Textbooks”. Scholastic Administrator, 11(5), 26-28.

Jonathan Sapers presents the book of the future which is the digital textbook and some of its possibilities. One description he provides is of students being able to highlight sentences and turn them into flashcards. Even more enticing is the price of $14.99 for an iBook. This is huge because the price range for paper textbooks he gives is $80.00-$150.00. Plus with the $14.99 iBook it is also interactive.

Since an iBook is on the iPad it doesn’t require internet access so there isn’t the worry of what will happen if the internet is unavailable. Another advantage is that the digital textbooks can easily be updated. Digital textbooks are interactive providing different types of stimulation for students and reaching different learning abilities.

Takahashi, P. (2011). “Las Vegas Schools Bet iPad Effort Will Improve Learning”. Education Week,

21(8), 10.

Paul Takahashi’s article tells how iPads are going to change schools in Nevada. The digital textbook is more than a book. It is interactive and engages students. It provides video tutorials and allows for students to take notes. Students are able to learn at their own pace. They can re-watch something if they didn’t understand. Missing class won’t require a lot of make-up work because students have access to it with their iPad.

The focus is to provide the best instruction for students and to be up to date with digital technology. The county officials know that it’s a risk because there aren’t many studies on the effectiveness of iPads and education but they are confident it is the right choice. They are hopeful this will help increase test scores of students in this area.

Reading Response #6

How does Amazon know what I’m interested in purchasing before I know? How did someone I don’t know in another country like my picture on Facebook when we aren’t even friends? Are we being watched? The rapid growth of technology has left many people concerned about privacy and the ways that global information companies use their personal information.

What is privacy? Kieron O’Hara discusses privacy in his article “Are We Getting Privacy the Wrong Way Round?”. O’Hara gives two descriptions of privacy the first is “privacy is a private good, like life, wealth, and freedom. Unlike clean air, clean water, and democracy, it isn’t a public good whose benefits accrue to the community at large” (p 90, 2013).This first description of privacy is only for the individual and sounds like something one has to work to obtain.

His second description of privacy describes it as “an option that people are at liberty to protect or otherwise. They assess its benefits and costs, and make decisions accordingly” (p 90, 2013). In O’Hara’s second description it seems to only take into account people who are knowledgeable in the way information provided can be used. There’s also the concern about the future use or effects of information that is shared. What is private now may not be in the future.

There are many opinions on what privacy is today. It was once a simpler more understood term. Another term that is changing with the age of information technology is the term evil. Evil is used in a famous slogan by Google which is also there motto. That slogan is “Don’t be evil.”

Ian Bogost’s article “What is ‘Evil’ to Google?” explores the Google slogan. His idea of Google’s definition is that it “isn’t tied to malevolence or moral corruption, the customary senses of the term. Rather, it’s better to understand Google’s sense of evil as the disruption of its brand of (computational) progress” (2013).  He formed this based on clues he said Google has left leading him to this understanding. Google’s focus isn’t on populism rather it’s on progress. After all it is a business and whatever helps it in long term growth is beneficial to the company.

With the constant growth and changes in technology and information the understanding of what is privacy or evil is in need of clarification. The change in privacy causes fear in some people – generally those who are less knowledgeable in technology and information. However this fear does not dictate the progression of technology. Not everyone is going to just get over the idea of having privacy because it is still something of value to some people. In order to protect what they hold valuable while information technology is rapidly evolving people need to understand the ways they can protect the privacy that still exists.

References

Bogost, Ian. “What Is ‘Evil’ to Google?” The Atlantic. October 15, 2013              <http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/10/what-is-evil-to-google/280573/>.

O’Hara, Kieron. “Are We Getting Privacy the Wrong Way Round?” IEEE Internet Computing 17.4

(2013): 89-92.http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6547595.

Reading Response #5

In the current digital age it seems strange to think that scholarship isn’t in a hurry to join in on the excitement. In the article “Does Digital Scholarship Have a Future?” Edward Ayres discusses the delay in digital scholarship. His tone is set in his thesis “…the scholarship on which everything else is built – remains surprisingly unaltered. The articles and books that scholars produce today bear little mark of the digital age in which they are created” (2013). It seems strange that scholarship is moving at a turtle’s pace toward becoming digital.

What exactly is digital scholarship? Ayers’s definition of digital scholarship is “discipline-based scholarship produced with digital tools and presented in digital form” (2013). Digital scholarship doesn’t eliminate any of the value of traditional scholarship, instead it is believed to become more valuable with many added possibilities.

Scholarship is a long and involved process without adding the digital push. The purpose of any type of scholarship is to “define a problem within a meaningful conversation, it arrays evidence to address the problem, it makes the clearest case for a solution to the problem, and it conveys that case to every relevant audience” (2013). Digital scholarship not only includes digital abilities but must also incorporate all of these aspects. Digital scholarship will require scholars to think on a larger scale of possibilities and projects. There are agencies willing to fund digital scholarship they are just waiting on the scholarship to support.

So what is the problem with turning scholarship into digital scholarship? It’s the scholars. They don’t feel it’s worth the time, some don’t know how and don’t have the time needed to learn. Instead of making the time they stick with what they know. Scholars “advance a disciplined and meaningful conversation but not different enough to fall out of it…make contributions and fill gaps” in the conversation. The scholarship includes “research, evaluation and revision” before the public sees it. Once it is in print the scholarship is “widely read, reviewed, comprehended, absorbed and debated or built upon” (2013). They are protective of their research and take pride in it so they aren’t in any hurry to fully join the rest of the world on the world wide web. In time digital scholarship will become the norm.

 

Ayers, Edward. “Does Digital Scholarship Have a Future?” Educause Review Online. August 5 2013.Web. <http://www.educause.edu/ero/article/does-digital-scholarship-have-future>.

Book Review

Technology has introduced us to many new words that have been added to our vocabulary along with many new terms/phrases that we now hear or use regularly. One of those terms we hear frequently is big data. Viktor Mayer-Schönberger is a Professor of internet governance and regulation at the Oxford Internet Institute with the University of Oxford and Kenneth Cukier is the data editor of The Economist. Together these two gentlemen wrote the book Big Data.

Big Data is broken down into 10 chapters explaining big data from the very beginning through what is to come. They take two small words that encompass a vast amount of data with a meaning that can be difficult to comprehend. They break it down in to smaller pieces doing so in a way that provides interesting tidbits of amusing information along the way. Throughout the process they describe how our world and way of thinking is changing. For those people afraid of the possibilities big data holds this book explains how to enjoy what big data has to offer while also not fearing the loss of our liberties.

There is still much to discover, research, and understand regarding big data. In an article by Tim Harford with FT Magazine titled “Big data: are we making a big mistake?” he warns that “Statisticians have spent the past 200 years figuring out what traps lie in wait when we try to understand the world through data. The data are bigger, faster and cheaper these days – but we must not pretend that the traps have all been made safe. They have not” (2014). The authors of Big Data not only introduce the great potentials of big data but they also warn what could happen if we allowed it to be used in every area of our lives.

Big data is still new territory that is being explored which we need to explore carefully and intelligently. Mayer-Schönberger and Cukier caution that “The future must remain something that we can shape to our own design. If it does not, big data will have perverted the very essence of humanity: rational thought and free choice” (pg. 193, 2014). While there is great advancing potential within big data we also need to be aware of the monster it could create.

Big data is a powerful tool that we possess. The piece by piece unveiling of big data was helpful in the path to understanding for those who may be less than tech savvy. The authors made this not only easy to follow but also easy to understand while also entertaining. This will become the new go to book on how to understand big data.

References

Harford, Tim. “Big Data: Are We Making a Big Mistake?” Financial Times. March 28

  1. <http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/21a6e7d8-b479-11e3-a09a-00144feabdc0.html#axzz2ziUgQIoH>.

Mayer-Schönberger, V., & Cukier, K. (2014). Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How

            We Live, Work and Think. Boston, VA: Mariner Books.

Prospectus

Technology and Education Prospectus

Schools have transformed over time. The invention of the printing press provided textbooks for students. One room classrooms became classes divided by grade level. Typewriters were replaced by keyboards with correction tape and eventually computers. Computers have opened the doors to even greater change in education. They replaced the card catalogue, took the place of handwritten papers, allowed easier access for research, reduced the need for physical textbooks by providing them online, and more recently have allowed students to participate in the classroom remotely. The advancement in computers and access to them has allowed students to learn beyond the classroom as well as assist with diverse learning.

Students in schools today know many uses for the computer or computer devices outside of Oregon Trail which was popular in the 1980s. While not all students will benefit from the use of computer devices in schools in the same way or have regular access to them outside of school, the increased use for teaching and learning will have a greater positive impact on the majority of students. It allows students who face challenges with traditional educational opportunities to learn to the same level as the stereotypical average to above average students.

Draft Outline

  1. History of educational technology
  2. Allows for types of classrooms
    1. Traditional classroom
    2. Online classroom
    3. Flipped classroom
  3. Student Needs
    1. Diverse learners
    2. Special needs students
  4. Teacher training
    1. Making all teachers technology savvy
    2. Expense to schools for training
    3. Increased/decreased expense to teachers
  5. Computer devise(s) accessibility
    1. Funding for schools
    2. Availability to students outside of school
  6. Social environment
    1. Less physical social interaction
    2. Opportunities for collaboration
  7. Technology assists in student engagement
    1. More active learning
    2. More teacher to student mentoring
  8. Preparing for the future
    1. Entering job market with abilities to collaborate
    2. Prepared for a global market
  9. Conclusion

 

References

Bashram, J. D., Israel, M., Graden, J., Poth, R., & Winston, M. (2010). “A Comprehensive Approach to RTI: Embedding Universal Design for Learning and Technology”. Learning Disability Quarterly, 33(4), 243-255.

This article discusses the level of the needs for diverse learning students. It address RtI (Response to Intervention). RtI “provides tiered levels of supports to all students and allows for increasingly more intensive and individualized instruction” (pg 243). It addresses students needs and plans according to those needs through instructional, environmental, and technology supports. Technology is a major support in special education. The authors also introduce UDL (Universal Design for Learning). They discuss the need for the relationship between RtI and UDL to be developed together.

Flipped Learning Network (FLN). (2014). “The Four Pillars of F-L-I-P”. www.flippedlearning.org/definition.

This article explains what flipped learning is and how it is used. The short explanation is school work at home and homework at school. The difference between a flipped classroom and flipped learning is made clear that they are not the same. This article clearly addresses what is called the four pillars of F-L-I-P and how it can be used.

Flumerfelt, S., & Green, G. (2013). “Using Lean in the Flipped Classroom for At Risk Students”. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 16(1), 356-366.

The authors for this article discuss the need for school reform and continuous improvement. They address the potential for technology used as an instructional tool. Then they introduce lean which is regarded in some areas as best practices for continual improvement in schools. It is currently known as a philosophy and strategy for improvement in education.

Holland, J., & Holland, J. (2014). “Implications of Shifting Technology in Education”. Techtrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 58(3), 16-25. doi:10.1007/s11528-014-0748-3

The authors address the potential of technology in education now and up to five years into the future. Technology allows for a different type of classroom. The classroom can be at a traditional school, at home in front of the computer, in the car while traveling or many other options. Technology opens doors for diverse learners, assistance with special needs, and global learning environments. The use of technology in education provides skills not only with technology but socially and with other cultures.

Horn, M. (2013). “The Transformational Potential of Flipped Classrooms”. Education Next. 13(3), 78-79.

Michael Horn describes the flipped classroom as learning online part of the time and in an actual classroom part of the time. He explains how this is can be beneficial to students when it is basically the same with just school work and homework being switched. The flipped classroom allows more flexibility for students to learn at their own pace. He also addresses the concern about low-income areas not having the means to promote a flipped classroom.

Jerles, J. (2012). “Blogging in Elementary School: Why, How, and What Teachers Can do to Encourage Writing”. National Teacher Education Journal, 5(3), 85-88.

This article discusses the benefits of blogging for elementary students. Elementary students today will certainly be using computers and internet to communicate regularly which makes it important for them to learn early on how to use it. The author for this article presents three points for teachers about using online writing activities.

McLean, K. (2013). “Literacy and Technology in the Early Years of Education: Looking to the Familiar to Inform Educator Practice”. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 38(4), 30-41.

The author presents the idea that technology and literacy can benefit one another in education in the early years. She believes that as technology advances literacy learning will continue to change. Technology is just another tool just as a book has been for learning literacy.

Roehl, A., Reddy, S. & Shannon, G. (2013). “The Flipped Classroom: An Opportunity to Engage Millennial Students Through Active

Learning Strategies”. Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences, 105(2), 44-49.

This article addresses the benefits of using technology to engage millennials in class by eliminating lectures during class time. This allows more time for active learning. Students have more opportunities for peer-to-peer collaboration, teacher-student mentoring, and cross-disciplinary engagement.While this article addressed the many benefits of the flipped classroom it also made clear that there are still many areas for improvement. It pointed out the need for students to be more responsible using the flipped classroom method.

Rycik, J.A. (2012). “Building Capacity for Reform”. American Secondary Education, 40(3), 80-81.

The author provided a basic understanding of the flipped classroom. He provided benefits while also pointing out that it doesn’t eliminate students failing. In this article Rycik makes it known that teachers need to find a way for all students to receive access to the necessary technology at home.

Reading Response #4 – Evaluative Thoughts – Summary Analysis

Source Analysis # 1

This source evaluation form is for the following source type (mark ONE):

__ Book appropriate for academic research _X_ Scholarly journal article
__ Newspaper article __ Government source
__ Website __ Other (explain what: _________________)

Citation/Background Information:

a. Write the complete source citation below in APA format (including proper indentation and spacing).
Basham, J. D., Israel, M., Graden, J., Poth, R., & Winston, M. (2010). “A Comprehensive
Approach to RTI: Embedding Universal Design for Learning and Technology”. Learning
Disability Quarterly, 33(4), 243-255.

b. Describe the author’s/authors’ credentials. (for example: degrees, area of expertise, employment (if relevant), other publications related to topic).

James D. Basham is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Special Education at the University of Kansas.
Maya Israel is an Assistant Professor with the College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services at the University of Cincinnati. She also holds appointments in the Special Education Program and the Instructional Design and Technology Program.
Janet Graden teaches graduate courses in the School of Psychology. She is a consultant with many Ohio schools and nationally to implement intervention-based practices. She is also Head of the Division of Human Services with the University of Cincinnati.
Dr. Rita Poth is a licensed School Psychologist by the State of Ohio. She serves as an Adjunct Assistant Professor in the Division of Human Services in the College of Education, Criminal Justice and Human Services.
Dr. Markay Winston is the Director of Student Services for Cincinnati public schools.

Evaluation:

Provide a summary of the main argument of the source reviewed – what was the “point” of the information?

This article discusses the level of the needs diverse learning students. It address RtI (Response to intervention). RtI “provides tiered levels of supports to all students and allows for increasingly more intensive and individualized instruction” (pg 243). It addresses students needs and plans according to those needs through instructional, environmental, and technology supports.

What did reading this source add to your understanding of the topic? What subtopics did it cover? What concepts did it clarify? What additional arguments or “sides” did it reveal?

This source increased my understanding of how special education is determined and how students are assisted depending on where they fell in the evaluation. Technology is a major support in special education. It introduced RtI and UDL. RtI is Response to Intervention and UDL is Universal Design for Learning. This article discussed the need for the relationship between RtI and UDL to be developed together.

How does this information relate to answering your research question/defending your thesis?

This source provides great information to better understand the use of technology with special education and the benefits.

What questions did the source raise or leave unanswered? What additional evidence do you need to answer your research question/defend your thesis more fully?
·
This source provided a good starting point for understanding the benefits of technology and special education or diverse learning. The next step is to find out more about how it is actually used or developed for diverse learning.

Notes (Ideas from the source for potential research use)
Note type (mark ONE): _X_ direct quote ___ paraphrase ___ summary

“Response to intervention (RtI) provides tiered levels of supports to all students and allows for increasingly more intensive and individualized instruction. Similarly, universal design for learning (UDL) addresses needs of students by proactively planning for instructional, environmental, and technology supports to allow all students to effectively, access and engage in instruction” (pg 243).

Note type (mark ONE): _X_ direct quote ___ paraphrase ___ summary

“As noted, technology is fundamental to implementing a UDL Instructional design. Thus, integrating UDL into an ecological RtI framework requires greater understanding of how technology may be used to support student learning” (pg 245).

Note type (mark ONE): _X_ direct quote ___ paraphrase ___ summary

“This functional view of ‘how’ technology can purposefully be used to support human performance is pedagogically important for educating all students, especially those with diverse learning needs, whether they are low or high performers. Moreover, realizing the merits of technology as a purposeful part of instructional design, whether used proactively with all students or reactively based on performance data of a group of students or a single student, is essential to an ecological RtI model” (pg 246).

Source Analysis # 2

This source evaluation form is for the following source type (mark ONE):

__ Book appropriate for academic research _X_ Scholarly journal article
__ Newspaper article __ Government source
__ Website __ Other (explain what: _________________)

Citation/Background Information:

a. Write the complete source citation below in APA format (including proper indentation and spacing).

Rycik, J. A. (2012). “Building Capacity for Reform”. American Secondary Education, 40(3), 80-
81.

b. Describe the author’s/authors’ credentials. (for example: degrees, area of expertise, employment (if relevant), other publications related to topic).

James Rycik is a Professor of Education at Ashland University. He is also the Editor of American Secondary Education.

Evaluation:

Provide a summary of the main argument of the source reviewed – what was the “point” of the information?

This is a short article that provided a basic understanding of the flipped classroom. It provided benefits while also pointing out that it doesn’t eliminate students failing. In this article Rycik makes it known that teachers need to find a way for all students to receive access to the necessary technology at home.

What did reading this source add to your understanding of the topic? What subtopics did it cover? What concepts did it clarify? What additional arguments or “sides” did it reveal?

This article provided a good definition and example for the flipped classroom. The biggest benefit of this article was that it provided a link to the Flipped Learning Network where I’ve been able to find much more information on the flipped classroom.

How does this information relate to answering your research question/defending your thesis?

This article helps to understand another use for technology in the classroom. It provided a link that is very beneficial along with a few other resources.

What questions did the source raise or leave unanswered? What additional evidence do you need to answer your research question/defend your thesis more fully?
·
The point this article left that needs further research is how to make it so all students have access at home to the necessary technology.

Notes (Ideas from the source for potential research use)
Note type (mark ONE): _X_ direct quote ___ paraphrase ___ summary

“…class time in flipped classrooms is spent with students working at their own pace, either with other students or by themselves, while teachers provide one-on-one attention” (pg 80).

Source Analysis # 3

This source evaluation form is for the following source type (mark ONE):

__ Book appropriate for academic research _X Scholarly journal article
__ Newspaper article __ Government source
__ Website __ Other (explain what: _________________)

Citation/Background Information:

a. Write the complete source citation below in APA format (including proper indentation and spacing).
Roehl, A., Reddy, S., & Shannon, G. (2013). “The Flipped Classroom: An Opportunity to Engage
Millennial Students Through Active Learning Strategies”. Journal of Family &
Consumer Sciences, 105(2), 44-49.

b. Describe the author’s/authors’ credentials. (for example: degrees, area of expertise, employment (if relevant), other publications related to topic).

Amy Roehl, Shweta Linga Reddy, PhD, and Gayla Jett Shannon are all Assistant Professors at Texas Christian University in Texas.

Evaluation:

Provide a summary of the main argument of the source reviewed – what was the “point” of the information?

This article address the benefit of using technology to engage millennials in class by eliminating lectures during class time. This allows more time for active learning. Students have more opportunities for peer-to-peer collaboration, teacher-student mentoring, and cross-disciplinary engagement.

What did reading this source add to your understanding of the topic? What subtopics did it cover? What concepts did it clarify? What additional arguments or “sides” did it reveal?

While this article addressed the many benefits of the flipped classroom it also made clear that there are still many areas for improvement. It pointed out the need for students to be more responsible using the flipped classroom method.

How does this information relate to answering your research question/defending your thesis?

The information in this article provides more information regarding the benefits of a flipped classroom as well as the challenges. It also impresses the need for this type of learning with students today.

What questions did the source raise or leave unanswered? What additional evidence do you need to answer your research question/defend your thesis more fully?

This source pointed out that not everyone has access to the necessary technology but didn’t provide any alternative possibilities. I need to find more information on how to make this possible or if it is even possible and what the cost may be.

Notes (Ideas from the source for potential research use)
Note type (mark ONE): _X_ direct quote ___ paraphrase ___ summary

“Due to the structural differences of the flipped classroom model, students become more aware of their own learning process than do students in more traditional settings” (pg 47).

Note type (mark ONE): _X_ direct quote ___ paraphrase ___ summary

“Furthermore, a flipped classroom allows students who may be hesitant to ask questions in the middle of a lecture to seek assistance from the teacher during their individual feedback sessions” (pg 47).

Note type (mark ONE): _X_ direct quote ___ paraphrase ___ summary

“The flipped classrooms, as well as active learning, require students to assume more responsibility for their individual learning experience. Teachers must include clear expectations of self-direction and motivation within their syllabus or framework fo the course” (pg 48).